Minerals, Micronutrients that Consumers Rarely Know About21 June 2022
Micronutrients (micronutrients) are nutrients needed by the body in small amounts, but have a very important role in the formation of hormones, enzyme activity and regulate the function of the immune system and reproductive system. Micronutrients include vitamins (both water-soluble and fat-soluble)...
Micronutrients (micronutrients) are nutrients needed by the body in small amounts, but have a very important role in the formation of hormones, enzyme activity and regulate the function of the immune system and reproductive system. Micronutrients include vitamins (both water-soluble and fat-soluble) and minerals.
Minerals are divided into two groups, namely macrominerals and microminerals. Macrominerals are minerals that the body needs at least 100 mg per day (eg calcium, phosphorus), while microminerals (trace elements) are minerals that the body needs in amounts less than 100 mg per day (eg zinc, iron). There are also microminerals needed in amounts of only a few micrograms per day, such as cuprum and molybdenum. Micronutrients are obtained from outside the body such as from food or supplements, because the body is not able to produce them in sufficient quantities according to the body's needs.
Although only needed by the body in very small amounts, micronutrients are needed by the body. Micronutrient deficiencies can increase the risk of infectious diseases, death from diarrhea, measles, malaria and lung disease. This condition is part of the 10 leading causes of death in the world today. WHO reported that more than 2000 million people in the world suffer from vitamin and mineral deficiencies, especially vitamin A, iodine, iron and zinc.
The groups most susceptible to micronutrient deficiencies are pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers and children under 5 years of age. This is because they need vitamins and minerals in greater quantities than the other groups. In addition, this group is also very susceptible to the adverse effects of micronutrient deficiencies. For pregnant women, lack of micronutrients can increase the risk of maternal death during childbirth, giving birth to babies with low birth weight. For breastfeeding mothers, their micronutrient status will determine the health, growth and development of the babies they breastfeed, especially in the first 6 months after the baby is born. As for young children, lack of micronutrients can increase the risk of death due to infectious diseases and can cause physical and mental disorders in children.
Below are some of the important micronutrients currently associated with public health issues, namely:
Iron is probably the micro-mineral you hear most about. Iron plays an important role, because it is needed in the production of hemoglobin which is part of blood cells. In addition, iron is also an important component of muscles, and contributes to the formation of hormones in the body.
Although needed in small amounts, many people experience iron deficiency or deficiency from the food they eat. This condition is one of the triggers for iron deficiency anemia.
There are many functions of the micro mineral zinc, in maintaining health. Some of the functions of zinc, which play a role in the process of gene expression, enzymatic reactions, and wound recovery. In addition, this micro mineral also plays a role in DNA synthesis, cell growth and development, and improves the body's defense system.
Iodine is a micro mineral, which is commonly found in table salt. This trace mineral is needed by the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones play a role in various body functions, such as the immune system, bone health, and development of the central nervous system.
Manganese is needed in several body systems, such as brain function, nervous system, and many enzyme systems. As much as 20% of these micro minerals are already stored in the kidneys, liver, pancreas, and bones. Meanwhile, you can get some of it from healthy foods.
Consuming copper does sound unusual. But in fact, these micro minerals are needed in small amounts, so that the body's functions continue to work. Some of the functions of copper are to play a role in the production of red blood cells, maintain nerve cells, and maintain the immune system. In addition, these micro minerals also play a role in the formation of collagen, iron absorption, and energy production.
There are several ways that can be done to overcome micronutrient deficiencies. The first is by diversifying food, and the second is by taking additional multivitamins which are equipped with 9 vitamins and 7 minerals.